Know When You Need Brake Repairs

Brake repairs – critical? Of course! Your brakes keep your family safe. Brake repairs and parts for imports – expensive? You bet! Brake rotors for import cars, unlike domestics, are built with minimal thicknesses to save weight – meaning they can’t be “turned”; they must be replaced.

Brake rotors for imports are also more sensitive to warping from heat, and overheated brakes are the second most common cause of failure (first is wear-and-tear).

Save money on brake repairs and parts with these tips:

Use Your Eyes & Ears to Inspect Your Brakes
Visually inspect your brakes’ condition at least every six months. Here are some things to look for:

Brake Rotors (discs) should be inspected all the way around the surface and on both sides for any concentric scoring (grooves) or obvious defects. If defects are found, replace your rotors immediately. Any rotor discoloration may be a sign of overheating and an inspection by a brake repair professional is needed.

Brake Pads will normally match rotor scoring but should also be inspected for uneven wear, breakage or cracking on the friction surface. Again, if defects are found, replace the pads immediately. Many cars also have brake pad sensors to warn of pad wear. If your car uses sensors, replace these at the same time as your pads.

Brake Drums (if equipped) should also be inspected on a regular basis. Check for the same types of flaws as noted above. The drums should not have excessive grooves or have a deep “trough” dug into them where the shoes ride.

Brake Shoes (if equipped) should be worn evenly and have no rivets protruding to the friction surface.

Additional Troubleshooting: When inspecting brakes, check calipers, wheel cylinders, hoses and fittings for any hydraulic fluid leakage.

Inspect the master cylinder, reservoir and proportioning valve assemblies as well. Replace or rebuild as required.

A “spongy” brake pedal or one that’s gotten lower underfoot also needs looking into. It could be caused by sticking calipers, worn pads, low fluid or hydraulic system problems.

If you can’t “pump them up”, then you definitely have hydraulic problems that need work. If you always have to pump them up, at the very least your hydraulic fluid needs replacement.

To check brakes by sound, know how your brakes should sound and listen for out-of-the-ordinary noises.

Most cars have a slight brushing sound from the pads lightly touching the rotors. This is perfectly normal. Sounds to beware of include:

Squeaking may be caused by dust or dirt on the brakes, loose pads vibrating when applied or worn pads.

Rhythmic noise might mean you have a warped rotor. Instead of a solid squeaking noise, it pulsates. In extreme cases, the brake pedal will also pulsate underfoot.

Constant brake noise is never a good sound and any grinding noise spells real trouble!

Most importantly: As soon as any problem is noticed, get it repaired immediately. Delaying brake repairs is extremely dangerous.

Overstressed rotors and drums can break. Brakes may be too worn or damaged to stop your car in an emergency.

Even if you manage to avoid physical harm, the longer you delay fixing brake problems, the more you increase the cost of doing so.

Badly worn, warped or overheated rotors can damage wheel bearings and the complete wheel hub assembly. These parts often cost as much or more than the brakes themselves.

Even if you like doing your own work, every few years your brakes should be examined by a professional. Checking brakes for “run-out”, warping, wheel bearing play, proper proportioning balance, among others, are normally more involved than can be accomplished in your garage. This inspection can also uncover underlying problems that could eventually become costly or dangerous.

Important Things to Remember
Heed these tips and you’re on your way to ensuring your brakes won’t fail:

Tip #1: Keep the hydraulic reservoir at the proper level with the fluid type recommended by the car manufacturer. Never substitute or mix types of fluid. Remember also that hydraulic fluid absorbs water. Never use old hydraulic fluid – always use a fresh container.

Tip #2: Keep brakes clean by washing them off at the same time as your car. This keeps squeaky dust and dirt off the pads and makes brakes easier to inspect and work on.

Tip #3: Never spray, touch or drip any oil or lubricants on the brake friction surfaces. If this occurs, spray immediately with brake cleaner to remove completely.

Tip #4: There are no shortcuts or quick fixes to brake problems. They either function properly or they don’t. Know your brake system – how it should work, feel and sound – before it acts up so you’ll know when something’s wrong.

Tip #5: Most imports don’t have serviceable rotors. They must be replaced at the same time as the pads. The rotors cannot be “turned” to remove imperfections. There isn’t sufficient metal thickness to safely accomplish this.

Tip #6: Keep a repair log with receipts when any service is performed on your car. It helps when you need to check if your warranty is still in effect. More importantly, it’s a great gauge of performance and an indicator of other problems.

Tip #7: Whenever the pads are replaced, the hydraulic system must be bled to remove any air bubbles. Most specialists recommend changing the fluid with every pad replacement. If you’re unsure of the proper technique for bleeding the hydraulic system, don’t perform the job yourself. Seek help from a professional. ABS equipped cars should be bled only by professionals.

Tip #8: Most noises are usually related to your pads. However, whenever replacing pads, you should also replace the sensors and seriously consider replacing the rotors at the same time.

Tip #9: After installing new pads, remember to “set” them properly. This conditions them for maximum performance and prevents premature failure. Instructions for setting pads is usually provided in the package with your new pads.

Brake Parts Shopping List
When shopping for parts, remember two important things:

1. OEM/OES (original equipment manufactured/supplied) or equivalent pads and rotors are not always cheap. You do, however, get what you pay for. OE parts will give you the most trouble-free driving and peace of mind. And . . . isn’t that what’s most important?

2. Before requesting any brake parts for your import car, make sure you have the year, exact model designation, engine size and type, brake configuration, type of rotors (solid or vented), vehicle ID number (VIN) and production date. For Volvos, you’ll also need rotor diameter, caliper manufacturer and mount and shape of the pads.

Here is a list of parts you should consider when working on brake systems:

– Front Brake Rotors (Brake Discs) –
– Front Brake Pads –
– Rear Brake Rotors (Brake Discs) or Rear Brake Drums –
– Rear Brake Pads or Brake Shoes –
– Brake Sensors (front and/or rear, as applicable)
– Brake Calipers or Caliper Rebuild Kits –
– Wheel Cylinders –
– Hydraulic Hoses –
– Hose/Tube Fittings –
– Brake Master Cylinder –
– Power Booster –
– Reservoir & Grommets –
– Brake Proportioning Valve Assembly –
– Hydraulic & Brake Fluid –
– Brake Cleaner –
– Anti-Squeal Compound –
Don’t Forget:
Repair articles are added regularly.
Come back often to check for new maintenance topics.

These repair tips are designed only as a starting point.
Please seek the assistance of a professional mechanic
for all repair problems beyond your capabilities.

Should You Know About Troubleshoot & Clean Dirty Fuel Injectors

Clean fuel injectors are a must for peak engine performance, fuel economy and emissions. If the injectors are dirty and can’t deliver their normal dose of fuel, performance, fuel economy and emissions are all going to suffer. Dirty injectors can’t flow as much fuel as clean ones, nor can they delivery the correct spray pattern that is so essential for clean, efficient combustion. The fuel feedback control system will compensate for the leaning effect once it is in closed loop, but it can’t correct the underlying condition that is causing the problem.

The injectors need to be cleaned, if an engine is experiencing any of the classic symptoms of dirty injectors, such as lean misfire, rough idle, hesitation and stumbling on light acceleration, a loss of power, and higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions.

Lean misfire may also trigger a misfire code and turn on the Check Engine light on 1996 and newer vehicles with OBD II systems. The code often will be a P0300 random misfire code, or you may find one or more misfire codes for individual cylinders, depending on which injectors are most affected.

FUEL INJECTOR CLOGGING

It doesn’t take much of a restriction in an injector to lean out the fuel mixture. A restriction of only 8% to 10% in a single fuel injector can be enough to cause a misfire. When this occurs, unburned oxygen enters the exhaust and makes the O2 sensor read lean. On older multiport systems that fire the injectors simultaneously, the computer compensates by increasing the “on” time of all the injectors, which can create an overly rich fuel condition in the other cylinders.

In turbocharged engines, dirty injectors can have a dangerous leaning effect that may lead to engine-damaging detonation. When the engine is under boost and higher rpms, it needs all the fuel the injectors can deliver. If the injectors are dirty and can’t keep up with the engine’s demands, the fuel mixture will lean out, causing detonation to occur.

All vehicles are vulnerable to injector clogging, but the ones that are most vulnerable and most likely to experience such driveability and emissions problems are older ones with pintle-style multiport injectors. Later injector designs are more resistant to clogging.

In the early pintle-style injectors, the nozzle’s shape and orifice size determine how much fuel flows through the injector and the shape of the spray pattern. Most pintle-style injectors are designed to produce a cone-shaped spray pattern. But, if fuel deposits accumulate in the nozzle area, it can restrict fuel delivery and break up the spray pattern, causing a lean fuel condition and many of the problems just mentioned.

Where do the deposits come from? Mostly from the fuel itself. Gasoline is a mixture of many different hydrocarbons, including oilfins, which are heavy, waxy compounds. The heavier the hydrocarbon, the more energy it yields when it burns. When the engine is shut off, the injectors undergo heat soak. Fuel residue in the injector nozzles evaporates, leaving the waxy oilfins behind. Because the engine is off, there is no cooling air flow through the ports and no fuel flow through the injectors to wash it away, so heat bakes the oilfins into hard varnish deposits. Over time, these deposits can build up and clog the injectors.

The formation of these deposits is a normal consequence of engine operation, so detergents are added to gasoline to help keep the injectors clean. But if a vehicle is used primarily for short-trip driving, the deposits may build up faster than the detergents can wash them away.

On four-cylinder engines, the #2 and #3 injectors are in the hottest location and tend to clog up faster than the end injectors on cylinders #1 and #4. The same applies to the injectors in the middle cylinders in six and eight cylinder engines. The hotter the location, the more vulnerable the injector is to clogging from heat soak. Throttle body injectors are less vulnerable to heat soak because of their location high above the intake manifold plenum.

CHEAP GAS MAKES MATTERS WORSE

To save a few pennies per gallon and to increase the competitive and/or profit margin of gasoline, some suppliers have cut back on the amount of detergent they add to their fuel or have switched to cheaper and less effective additives.

Commonly used deposit-control additives include polysibutylamine, polyisbutylene succinimide and polyisobutylene phenylamine. But these same additives also can build up on intake valve stems causing them to stick. To prevent this from happening, additional additives called “fluidizers” must also be added to the fuel. But, over time, these can contribute to the formation of combustion chamber deposits that raise compression and the engine’s octane requirements.

fuel injector Dirty injectors lean out the fuel mixture and contribute to lean misfire, hesitation and even detonation.
Cleaning should restore like-new performance.

One of the best additives is polyetheramine. It keeps injectors, valves and combustion chambers clean without the help of any additional fluidizers – but it costs more than twice as much as the other commonly used additives.

How much additive does it take to provide an adequate level of protection? Industry sources say the recommended level is about 1,000 parts per million (ppm) of dispersant-detergent in the fuel – which costs the gasoline supplier less than a penny a gallon. Even so, as much as 85% of the gasoline that is being sold contains only one-tenth of the recommended dosage, or only 100 ppm of additive. Consequently, using cheap gas contributes to the formation of injector deposits.

clean fuel injectors Cleaning injectors off-car takes more time and effort, but usually delivers much better results than on-car cleaning.

BENEFITS OF CLEANING FUEL INJECTORS

The benefits realized by injector cleaning obviously will vary depending on the condition of the injectors prior to cleaning and how badly they were clogged. Injectors that are really dirty should show more of a noticeable improvement in performance than ones that have only a light accumulation of deposits. Either way, performance, fuel economy and emissions should all be better after a cleaning.

Most high-mileage engines as well as engines that are used mostly for short trip stop-and-go driving are the most likely prospects for injector cleaning. Some experts recommend cleaning the injectors every 25,000 to 30,000 miles to keep them flowing at peak efficiency.

OTHER COMPONENTS THAT MAY NEED CLEANING

Another component that also may need to be cleaned to remove fuel varnish is the throttle body. Fuel vapor rising up through the intake manifold can accumulate and vaporize around the throttle plate and air bypass circuits, causing a change in the idle air/fuel mixture. Sometimes you can see the deposits, and sometimes you can’t. Either way, cleaning the throttle body and intake tract also may be necessary to fully restore engine performance, idle quality and emissions. An aerosol cleaning solvent works well here.

The intake valves and combustion chambers should also be cleaned when you do the injectors to remove deposits that may also be contributing to driveability and emissions problems. Deposits on the backs of intake valves can act like a sponge and absorb fuel, causing a momentary hesitation when the throttle is suddenly opened. Combustion chamber deposits increase compression and the risk of engine-damaging detonation (spark knock).

Engines that burn oil typically will have heavy intake valve and combustion chamber deposits that do not respond well to normal levels of detergent in gasoline. Additional cleaner is needed, which can be added to the fuel tank or run directly through the injectors.

To remove carbon deposits from the intake valves and combustion chambers, use a “top cleaner” type of product and follow the instructions, or use equipment that is designed to clean the upper engine (such as a Motorvac Decarbon machine).

clean fuel injectors Direct injection fuel injectors have very precise spray patterns and are even more sensitive to deposits than regular injectors.

injector spray patterns Injector spray patterns can show if any are misshapen or contain streamers of unvaporized liquid.

Some experts recommend replacing the spark plugs after doing an on-car injection cleaning or decarbon treatment. The residue that is loosened and washed away by the solvent may increase the risk of plug fouling. Changing the oil and filter is also a good idea following a cylinder decarbon treatment because some of the solvent will get past the rings and end up in the crankcase.

FUEL INJECTOR CLEANING OPTIONS

Should you clean the injectors in place or remove them and use some type of injector cleaning machine? It depends.

The easiest route is to clean the injectors in place because you do not have to remove the injectors (which can be a real chore on some import engines). Running cleaner through the injectors while the engine is running also removes many of the deposits on the valves and inside the combustion chambers. This eliminates the need for an extra cleaning step if the engine is full of carbon deposits. The job takes only 10 to 15 minutes, and you can usually tell right away if the treatment addressed the problem (engine runs smoother, idle misfire gone, etc.).

When doing the cleaning procedure itself, you must use pressurized equipment to feed the solvent directly into the fuel rail while the engine is running. This means you either have to disable the fuel pump and plug the fuel return line, or install a U-tube so the fuel will recirculate right back to the tank. Disabling the fuel pump can set a fault code on some cars, requiring you to clear the code after the job is done.

Easy as it is, there are some limitations with on-car injector cleaning. One is that badly clogged injectors may not pass enough solvent during a normal cleaning cycle to be thoroughly cleaned. Some baked-on deposits can be very difficult to remove, requiring you to prolong or repeat the cleaning process. And if on-car cleaning does not work? You will have to remove the injectors and have them cleaned on an injector cleaning machine – or replace them.

Another limitation with on-car injector cleaning is that you may have to do some additional tests to confirm that the injectors responded well enough to your cleaning efforts. A test drive may be needed to see if the driveability symptoms have been eliminated, or you may have to check emissions to make sure HC and CO levels are back to normal. A power balance test is another way to confirm engine performance and check for weak cylinders (there should be less than a 10% power variation between cylinders). An injector pressure drop test will tell you if the injectors are flowing evenly or not.

There may be some risk to the vehicle’s fuel system when using concentrated solvent to clean the injectors in place. Most equipment suppliers say to disconnect and plug the fuel return line so that solvent does not circulate back to the fuel tank. Strong solvents may attack rubber and plastic components in the fuel pump, regulator and fuel lines, creating additional problems that you don’t need.

On-car injector cleaning also involves some risk to the person who’s performing the service. You have to disconnect pressurized fuel lines, make sure there are no fuel leaks, and feed high-pressure solvent (which is just as flammable as gasoline) into the engine while the engine is running. Safety precautions should always include eye protection, making sure there are no open sources of ignition (sparks) nearby, and avoiding direct exposure with the cleaning solvent.

OFF-CAR FUEL INJECTOR CLEANING

Injectors that are really dirty may not respond well to on-car cleaning. You may have to use a more powerful solvent and/or longer cycle time to loosen the baked-on deposits. That is where an off-car injector cleaning machine really helps.

Off-car injector cleaning is a more expensive service because of the labor involved to remove the injectors (which can be considerable on some applications), and it requires special equipment that can cost anywhere from $4,000 to $8,300.

fuel injector flow testing

Many shops charge between $25 and $35 per injector for off-car cleaning – which makes it more costly than on-car cleaning. But it also can motorists a lot of money because off-car cleaning is a lot cheaper than replacing the injectors with new ones (which can cost hundreds of dollars a set!).

Off-car injector cleaning can often restore dirty injectors that fail to respond to on-car cleaning. That is why some shops do only off-car cleaning. They do not want to have to clean the injectors twice. Off-car cleaning takes more time (typically 30 to 45 minutes after the injectors have been removed), and most machines have an ultrasonic bath that can be used to soak badly clogged injectors. Some machines also reverse-flush the injectors, which provides an added measure of cleaning.

Another reason for using off-car cleaning equipment is that the injectors can be flow-tested after they have been cleaned to verify their performance. The injectors typically are mounted on a test manifold and energized to spray solvent into clear graduated cylinders. By comparing the volume of fuel delivered, it is easy to see if all the injectors are flowing evenly.

As a rule, you should see less than 5% to 7% variation between injectors (some performance engine builders aim for 1% or less variation between injectors!). If an injector is not passing as much liquid as its companions, you can subject it to more cleaning. And, if it fails to respond to additional cleaning, there is no guesswork about which injector needs to be replaced.

Flow-testing also allows you to compare the actual flow rate of each injector to factory specifications. If the flow is within specifications, you know the injector should perform properly when it is reinstalled back in the engine. Flow-testing also is a good way to make sure the injectors are the right ones for the engine (one or more injectors may have been previously replaced by someone else).

A flow test on the cleaning equipment allows you to see each injector’s spray pattern. If you see a normal, cone-shaped mist, you know the injector is flowing properly. If you see streamers of unvaporized liquid in the spray pattern, you know additional cleaning is needed or the injector needs to be replaced.

Know More About Troubleshoot Fuel Injectors

Clean fuel injectors are a must for peak engine performance, fuel economy and emissions. If the injectors are dirty and cannot deliver their normal dose of fuel, then performance, fuel economy and emissions are all going to suffer. Dirty injectors cannot flow as much fuel as clean ones, nor can they deliver the correct spray pattern that is so essential for clean, efficient combustion. The fuel feedback control system will compensate for the leaning effect once it is in closed loop, but it cannot correct the underlying condition that is causing the problem.

The injectors need to be cleaned if an engine is experiencing any of the classic symptoms of dirty injectors, such as lean misfire, rough idle, hesitation and stumbling on light acceleration, a loss of power, and higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions.

Lean misfire may also trigger a misfire code and turn on the Check Engine light on 1996 and newer vehicles with OBD II systems. The code often will be a P0300 random misfire code, or you may find one or more misfire codes for individual cylinders, depending on which injectors are most affected.
Fuel Injector Clogging

It does not take much of a restriction in an injector to lean out the fuel mixture. A restriction of only 8% to 10% in a single fuel injector can be enough to cause a misfire. When this occurs, unburned oxygen enters the exhaust and makes the O2 sensor read lean. On older multiport systems that fire the injectors simultaneously, the computer compensates by increasing the on-time of all the injectors, which can create an overly rich fuel condition in the other cylinders.
In turbocharged engines, dirty injectors can have a dangerous leaning effect that may lead to engine-damaging detonation. When the engine is under boost and higher rpm, it needs all the fuel the injectors can deliver. If the injectors are dirty and cannot keep up with the engine’s demands, the fuel mixture will lean out, causing detonation to occur.
All vehicles are vulnerable to injector clogging, but the ones that are most vulnerable and most likely to experience such driveability and emissions problems are older ones with pintle-style multiport injectors. Later injector designs are more resistant to clogging. In the early pintle-style injectors, the nozzle shape and orifice size determine how much fuel flows through the injector and the shape of the spray pattern. Most pintle-style injectors are designed to produce a cone-shaped spray pattern. But, if fuel deposits accumulate in the nozzle area, it can restrict fuel delivery and break up the spray pattern, causing a lean fuel condition and many of the problems just mentioned.
Fuel Injector Deposits

Where do the deposits come from? Mostly from the fuel itself. Gasoline is a mixture of many different hydrocarbons, including oilfins, which are heavy, waxy compounds. The heavier the hydrocarbon, the more energy it yields when it burns. When the engine is shut off, the injectors undergo heat soak. Fuel residue in the injector nozzles evaporates, leaving the waxy oilfins behind. Because the engine is off, there is no cooling airflow through the ports and no fuel flow through the injectors to wash it away, so heat bakes the oilfins into hard varnish deposits. Over time, these deposits can build up and clog the injectors.
dirty fuel injectors
The formation of these deposits is a normal consequence of engine operation, so detergents are added to gasoline to help keep the injectors clean. But if a vehicle is used primarily for short-trip driving, the deposits may build up faster than the detergents can wash them away.
On four-cylinder engines, the #2 and #3 injectors are in the hottest location and tend to clog up faster than the end injectors on cylinders #1 and #4. The same applies to the injectors in the middle cylinders in six- and eight-cylinder engines. The hotter the location, the more vulnerable the injector is to clogging from heat soak. Throttle body injectors are less vulnerable to heat soak because of their location high above the intake manifold plenum.
Detergents In Gasoline

To save a few pennies per gallon and to increase the competitive and/or profit margin of gasoline, some suppliers have cut back on the amount of detergent they add to their fuel or have switched to cheaper and less-effective additives.
Commonly used deposit-control additives include polysibutylamine, polyisbutylene succinimide and polyisobutylene phenylamine. But these same additives also can build up on intake valve stems causing them to stick. To prevent this from happening, additional additives called fluidizers also must be added to the fuel. But, over time, these can contribute to the formation of combustion chamber deposits that raise compression and the engine’s octane requirements.
Dirty injectors lean out the fuel mixture and contribute to lean misfire, hesitation and even detonation. Cleaning should restore like-new performance.
One of the best additives is polyetheramine. It keeps injectors, valves and combustion chambers clean without the help of any additional fluidizers – but it costs more than twice as much as the other commonly used additives.
How much additive does it take to provide an adequate level of protection? Industry sources say the recommended level is about 1,000 parts per million (ppm) of dispersant-detergent in the fuel – which costs the gasoline supplier less than a penny a gallon. Even so, as much as 85% of the gasoline that is being sold contains only one-tenth of the recommended dosage, or only 100 ppm of additive. Consequently, using cheap gas contributes to the formation of injector deposits.
Fuel Injector Cleaning
The benefits realized by injector cleaning obviously will vary depending on the condition of the injectors prior to cleaning and how badly they were clogged. Injectors that are really dirty should show more of a noticeable improvement in performance than ones that have only a light accumulation of deposits. Either way, performance, fuel economy and emissions should all be better after a cleaning.
Most high-mileage engines, as well as engines that are used mostly for short-trip, stop-and-go driving, are the most likely prospects for injector cleaning. Some experts recommend cleaning the injectors every 25,000 to 30,000 miles to keep them flowing at peak efficiency.
More Fuel Injection Cleaning Options

Another component that also may need to be cleaned to remove fuel varnish is the throttle body. Fuel vapor rising up through the intake manifold can accumulate and vaporize around the throttle plate and air bypass circuits, causing a change in the idle air/fuel mixture. Sometimes you can see the deposits, and sometimes you cannot. Either way, cleaning the throttle body and intake tract also may be necessary to fully restore engine performance, idle quality and emissions. An aerosol cleaning solvent works well here.
The intake valves and combustion chambers also should be cleaned when you do the injectors to remove deposits that may also be contributing to driveability and emissions problems. Deposits on the backs of intake valves can act like a sponge and absorb fuel, causing a momentary hesitation when the throttle is suddenly opened. Combustion chamber deposits increase compression and the risk of engine-damaging detonation (spark knock).
Engines that burn oil typically will have heavy intake valve and combustion chamber deposits that do not respond well to normal levels of detergent in gasoline. Additional cleaner is needed, which can be added to the fuel tank or run directly through the injectors.
To remove carbon deposits from the intake valves and combustion chambers, use a top cleaner type of product and follow the instructions, or use equipment that is designed to clean the upper engine.
Direct injection fuel injectors have very precise spray patterns and are even more sensitive to deposits than regular injectors.
Note: Some experts recommend replacing the spark plugs after doing an on-car injection cleaning or decarbon treatment. The residue that is loosened and washed away by the solvent may increase the risk of plug fouling. Changing the oil and filter is also a good idea following a cylinder decarbon treatment because some of the solvent will get past the rings and end up in the crankcase.
Fuel Injector Cleaning Options

Should you clean the injectors in place or remove them and use some type of injector cleaning machine? It depends.
The easiest route is to clean the injectors in place because you do not have to remove them (which can be a real chore on some import engines). Running cleaner through the injectors while the engine is running also removes many of the deposits on the valves and inside the combustion chambers. This eliminates the need for an extra cleaning step if the engine is full of carbon deposits. The job takes only 10 to 15 minutes, and you can usually tell right away if the treatment addressed the problem (engine runs smoother, idle misfire gone, etc.).
When doing the cleaning procedure itself, you must use pressurized equipment to feed the solvent directly into the fuel rail while the engine is running. This means you either have to disable the fuel pump and plug the fuel return line, or install a U-tube so the fuel will recirculate right back to the tank. Disabling the fuel pump can set a fault code on some cars, requiring you to clear the code after the job is done.
Easy as it is, there are some limitations with on-car injector cleaning. One is that badly clogged injectors may not pass enough solvent during a normal cleaning cycle to be thoroughly cleaned. Some baked-on deposits can be very difficult to remove, requiring you to prolong or repeat the cleaning process. And if on-car cleaning does not work? You will have to remove the injectors and try to clean them on an injector cleaning machine – or replace them.
Another limitation with on-car injector cleaning is that you may have to do some additional tests to confirm that the injectors responded well enough to your cleaning efforts. A test drive may be needed to see if the driveability symptoms have been eliminated, or you may have to check emissions to make sure HC and CO levels are back to normal. A power balance test is another way to confirm engine performance and check for weak cylinders (there should be less than a 10% power variation between cylinders). An injector pressure drop test will tell you if the injectors are flowing evenly or not.
There may be some risk to the vehicle’s fuel system when using concentrated solvent to clean the injectors in place. Most equipment suppliers say to disconnect and plug the fuel return line so that solvent does not circulate back to the fuel tank. Strong solvents may attack rubber and plastic components in the fuel pump, regulator and fuel lines, creating additional problems that you don’t want.
Be Cautious During Cleaning
On-car injector cleaning also involves some risk to the person who is performing the service. You have to disconnect pressurized fuel lines, make sure there are no fuel leaks, and feed high-pressure solvent (which is just as flammable as gasoline) into the engine while the engine is running. Safety precautions should always include eye protection, making sure there are no open sources of ignition (sparks) nearby, and avoiding direct exposure with the cleaning solvent.
dirty fuel injector
Clean Fuel Injectors Off Car

Injectors that are really dirty may not respond well to on-car cleaning. You may have to use a more powerful solvent and/or longer cycle time to loosen the baked-on deposits. That is where an off-car injector cleaning machine really pays for itself.
Off-car injector cleaning is a more expensive service because of the labor involved to remove the injectors (which can be considerable on some applications), and the special fuel injector cleaning equipment that is required.
Off-car injector cleaning can often restore dirty injectors that fail to respond to on-car cleaning. That is why some shops do only off-car cleaning. They don’t want to have to clean the injectors twice. Off-car cleaning takes more time (typically 30 to 45 minutes after the injectors have been removed), and most machines have an ultrasonic bath that can be used to soak badly clogged injectors. Some machines also reverse-flush the injectors, which provides an added measure of cleaning.
Another reason for using off-car cleaning equipment is that the injectors can be flow-tested after they have been cleaned to verify their performance. The injectors typically are mounted on a test manifold and energized to spray solvent into clear graduated cylinders. By comparing the volume of fuel delivered, it is easy to see if all the injectors are flowing evenly.
Observing the spray patterns of a set of injectors can show you at a glance if any are misshapen or contain streamers of unvaporized liquid.
As a rule, you should see less than 5% to 7% variation between injectors (some performance engine builders aim for 1% or less variation between injectors!). If an injector is not passing as much liquid as its companions, you can subject it to more cleaning. And, if it fails to respond to additional cleaning, there is no guesswork about which injector needs to be replaced.
fuel injection flow testing

Fuel Injector Flow Testing

Flow-testing also allows you to compare the actual flow rate of each injector to factory specifications. If the flow is within specifications, you know the injector should perform properly when it is reinstalled back in the engine. Flow-testing also is a good way to make sure the injectors are the right ones for the engine (one or more injectors may have been previously replaced by someone else).
A flow test on the cleaning equipment allows you to see each injector spray pattern. If you see a normal, cone-shaped mist, you know the injector is flowing properly. If you see streamers of unvaporized liquid in the spray pattern, you know additional cleaning is needed or the injector needs to be replaced.
Injector cleaning will be an ongoing need as long as engines are equipped with fuel injectors. Even the new generation of direct injection gasoline engines that are now being built are vulnerable to fuel deposits. So be on the alert for the symptoms of dirty injectors and do not hesitate to have the injectors cleaned for preventive maintenance.

Fen-phen Mixture Proves Dangerous: Is Phentermine 37.5 mg Also Terrible?

Would you like to get left behind your self-confidence on the favourite weight-loss medicine Apettite supressants 37.5 mg if issues happen versus other anti–being overweight medications and weight-loss therapies for his or her noted harmful effects on your body? Negative effects revealed by any prescription medication you can purchase don’t show indicator that other medicines plummeting from the very same category are inadequate and harmful to wellness. Particularly attorney at law centers on the most popular fat loss prescription medication Phentermine 37.5 milligram from http://www.fallencity.net then doubts and suspicions are certainly not meant to be came into. There mustn’t be a one iota of uncertainty in mind regarding the safety and efficacy of Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram for your simple reason that the medication by yourself is the reason the sale made of 50Percent weight loss medications around the world.
But, unfortunately! Other anti-unhealthy weight actions aren’t as effective as Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram from http://www.ccmerchantpro.com and the Fen-phen mixture reflects this time. Within a recently published report it turned out mentioned that the fen-phen diet combination caused dangerous bronchi conditions in 5 females ten many years once they got halted taking the medication. It triggered turmoil inside the pharmaceutical drug industry and encouraged website visitors to follow a careful tactic within their weight reduction remedy. Circumstances like the one talked about right this moment arise on infrequent foundation and earn men and women watchful about counterfeit and unsuccessful medications.
But so far as Phentermine 37.5 milligrams is concerned, you should not think twice before selecting the medicine, but it is recommended to find a ideal source and put it on your body in accordance with the instructions of a physician. From the traditional on-line resource or from a regional pharmacy, you can get Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams and resume unwanted weight damage efforts. This diet tablet may be authorized by the Meals and Drugs Management in 1959 like a treatment at any given time management of unhealthy weight and so it is secure for the treatment your obesity.
Despite the weight-loss substance Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram showing a great deal of facet-results like hallucination, pain in the chest, swelling from the really feel and thighs, fainting as well as some other individuals why individuals around the world haven’t halted using Phentermine 37.5 milligram? And so the additional Food (Food) approval draw. Are certainly not these specifics sufficient to remove concerns from your brain and crystal clear your point of view around the weight-loss medicine Phentermine 37.5 mg?
Each time a area of individuals is injured over the unwell- has an effect on of a diet treatment other people who desire to shed weight through the supervision of slimming capsules or through another signifies get completely scared and afterwards set out to follow a watchful approach while carrying on how much reduction strategy. It is indeed an absolute necessity which additional assures the prosperity of your warfare towards weight problems. With Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams also you will need to follow a cautionary approach to increase your weight reduction accomplishment. And also for Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram to work effectively going on a diet and activities ought to be included in your program frequently.

Lessons Learned About Wraps

Important Information Regarding Car Wraps That You Need To Know About There are actually quite a number of us who are spending most of their time on the road, driving around the town, visiting open houses, showing houses, brokers opens, meeting with clients as well as going on listing appointments Doing things like this will only result from prospective clients or potential customers to take notice of the vehicle that you are using all the time. As a matter of fact, this is actually the perfect opportunity for you to make or generate some more money that what you are already having by means of turning your own vehicle into some sort of marketing machine. There is no use denying about the fact that one of the things that is slowly turning into something big in this modern world that are living in is none other than the car wraps for realtors. When it comes to car wraps for realtors, it has been said that there are so many products that have a bit of similarity to it however, there are only three main products that goes with it. What we will be introducing to you fist among the three main products aforementioned is the car magnets and speaking of which, car magnets are said to be as the cheapest kind and even if they are not exactly the car wraps (but just similar to it) they still on the same category as it. The car magnets that will be designed by the company for your own personal use may vary in size however, there is no need for you to be worried or concerned about that as rest assured, it will still be big enough for your car. You can attach your car magnets anywhere you want however, if you are planning on using your car as a marketing machine, the best way to put car magnets is on the side of it and then, you can put whatever you want to put, may it be your web site or an ad. You will not have any problem with car magnets cause if you do not feel like using it, you can take it off from your car plus, it is really cheap so you can have as many as you want. The next product that we will be introducing to you is of course, the real and authentic car wraps for vehicles that realtors such as yourself can make the most use of. When you choose to have vehicle car wraps, you can actually wrap you car with the design as well as the advertisement that you have chosen yourself. When it comes to the design and the advertisement that you want to use for your car may come as just a small design or a wrap, depending on what you prefer to have.How I Became An Expert on Wraps

Why No One Talks About Cars Anymore

Automobiles – Getting Started & Next Steps

Ways to Significantly Raise Your Diesel Truck Fuel Efficiency

The profit margins to transport companies stay stagnant or worse although expenses of truck transport continue to increase. A part of this is because of the price of diesel fuel that’s projected to increase much more in the not too distant future. This makes fuel efficiency an ever more significant problem for drivers and businesses who want to prosper. By paying attention to a couple of simple rules, cutting fuel costs significantly can be done immediately.

The primary approach to cut back diesel fuel use would be to slow down. A truck traveling at 75 mph uses 50 percent more fuel than one covering exactly the same space at 60 miles per hour. That is right, 50 percent. Also, driving at 75 miles per hour emits an additional 50% in hydrocarbons, 100% more carbon monoxide, and 31% more nitrogen oxide pollutants. Slowing down does not merely save on fuel costs and emissions, it also saves lives on the roads.

Should you stop for more than three minutes, stop the engine to reduce idling time. Excessive idling could cause expensive damage that shortens the engine life and raises maintenance expenses and can add to fuel prices by as much as 50%. Additionally, it may decrease the life span of engine oil by just as much as 75% additionally adding to unwarranted expenses.

Be diligent about vehicle care. Appropriate engine maintenance reduces emissions, keeps it working efficiently to reduce fuel use, and reduces total repair costs. Tires that are correctly inflated enhance fuel mileage while enhancing functionality and increasing tire life for extra savings. Get affordable, but quality diesel truck components when possible to cut down on costs.

Anyone who has truck will need a person to provide quality repair services at a certain time. Provide such services requires specially trained and experienced staff members whose primary aim would be to offer extraordinary customer support.

The proficient workers that work for these providers can perform every job from tire and welding services to serious engine-related issues. They understand that situations similar to this could be nerve-racking for the motorists but that it also comes with territory. The service staff members make an effort to take the stress away from the motorists and keep them as relaxed as possible. They make an effort to repair the problems and get them back on the road as fast as possible.

The outcome of quality diesel truck repair service needs to be a long-lasting completed product. It’s critical that every truck runs economically. In addition to mending diesel vehicles, there is always routine maintenance that has to be performed. Following these suggestions alone will considerably save on the operational cost of a diesel truck to increase the profit margin significantly and add to the safe vehicle operation and reduced noxious emissions.

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A Beginners Guide To Loans

How to Find the Best Auto Loan Company

Owning a car should be simple and should not give you lots of stress. That is why getting an awesome auto loan is advisable. If you search on the Internet, you will discover that getting auto loans these days has become a lot easier. There are many firms or companies today that can help you own a car through auto loans. But it is very important to note that not all companies or firms that provide auto loan service can give you excellent quality service. It is wise that you get to read articles that can give you more information about how auto loans works and what deals are the best for you. What research can do is it can lead you to the most awesome companies out there that provide matchless auto loan deals and services.

Reading blogs or online articles is very helpful, especially if you are looking for the best auto loan companies that provide the best auto loan service. Asking for tips or pieces of advice from individuals who have tried auto loans before is also beneficial. There are indeed numbers of companies or firms out there that provide auto loan services, and so it should be your objective to find which company can give you the best deal. It is beneficial to visit as many websites as you can and then check different kinds of auto loan service – choose wisely and make sure that you make a shortlist.

Bear in mind to always choose those auto loan companies that are passionate about helping you get your own car – they should be honest as well. Get their contact information while you are visiting their website. It is very important that you give the auto loan company a call first before you pick them. Ask them relevant questions and raise your concerns about their auto loan deals if you have any. Aside from giving you an awesome auto loan deal, you also need to make sure that the auto loan company can give you top quality service. Make sure that the company is able to address all your concerns and answer all your questions properly and appropriately. Make sure that you understand the company’s terms and conditions.

Also, before you seek help from an auto loan company, it is very important that you evaluate your credit status. It should be your goal to choose an auto loan that you can afford. Keep in mind that monthly payments are needed in auto loans. If you already have an idea about how much you are willing to pay per month, then it is time for you to call the best auto loan company out there.

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Lessons Learned from Years with Services

Some Things You Should Know About Used Cars Dealerships If you want your car buying process to be one of the most satisfying things you get to experience, then it is important that you turn to used car dealerships. Wherever your current location is, you will surely find an auto broker or an auto consultant in your area. They not only sell used cars but also they make sure to sell them in the most pleasant of ways by not letting you get hassles and headaches like most people feel when buying used cars. A lot of people who have tried buying used cars know what a real pain and a nightmare the entire experience can be. Whatever location you are in, the entire process is just the same old thing.
The Beginner’s Guide to Services
You get into a used car lot. Before you even get a chance to step out of your car, a sharp dressed salesman immediately approaches you and then greets you. He then goes on and one with his pushy sales that leave you uneasy. And between 6 and 8 hours, you might as well agree with the salesman, they have made a sale, and you are then left confused.
The Beginner’s Guide to Services
You should know that you have just been through a well thought of high pressure sales method that is guaranteed to get your yes and make you buy the used car. Now, what if buying used cars does not have to be this way? This actually seems impossible, but actually it is very possible. By hiring an auto broker or an auto consultant, they will have to be the one who will do the work for you. If you only want the best services when it comes to buying used cars, then salesmen from used cars dealership companies are the way to go. This is due to the fact that they only want to form a car buying relationship with you that is sure to last. Just imagine it this way. Upon going inside a used cars dealership, you are then welcomed with a warm smile as well as an offer that will make you find the best used car that fits your budget well. By utilizing such a dealership, you are the one that is held important. To be able to determine what exactly is the car that you want and need, the salesperson may have to ask you certain questions. This is done so that you are not just forced to buy any used car. They even make it their responsibility to not push you to buy yourself a used car today. If they are done with assessing what car you exactly need for your budget, they will then do the necessary research to find the most perfect car for yours to buy. If they think that they have already obtained the perfect car for you, then they deliver it straight to you for a test drive. That is surely the kind of service you do not want to miss!

Getting To The Point – Vehicles

Get Fast Cash by Selling Your Junk Car If you have a junk car, you can sell it to make some quick cash. Like is the case with any selling, you want to get the most for the car. To ensure you get a fair amount for the car you want to sell, there are a number of things you can do. If you have a popular vehicle model, you can sell it to a junk yard that buys used car or truck parts. Apart from the cash you will receive, you can get some tax benefits. For example, if you sold the vehicle at a huge loss, you can apply for tax refunds. To get started with selling your vehicle, there are a number of things you will need. For example, you should have your driver’s license information, good research and negotiation skills and the original title of the car. Follow the steps below to sell your junk car. Find Car Junkyards in Your Area Use the internet to search for junkyards in your area. Find out whether the junkyards you come across are close to where you live. You want to deliver your car to the junkyard without a lot of difficulty.
The 10 Rules of Vehicles And How Learn More
Contact the junkyards you come across and let them know you are selling your vehicle. Let the junkyards know of the type of vehicle you have, its make, type of damage and extent of the damage. You may also have to answer further questions from the sales team of the junkyards. Answer the questions honestly and accurately. This is the only way in which you can know how much the junkyard can purchase the vehicle for.
The 10 Commandments of Vehicles And How Learn More
Evaluate the Offers If the junkyard is interested in buying your vehicle, you may be given an offer over the phone. Do not be alarmed when you are given an offer over the phone as this is how things usually are done. Avoid dealing with junkyards that insist they cannot give you an offer without seeing the vehicle at their yard. Doing so will only increase your costs. Apart from this, there is no guarantee that the junkyard will buy the vehicle. Check the Costs vs. Offers After getting in touch with all the junkyards in your area, check their offers as well as the cost you will incur to take to deliver the vehicle. The cost of delivery will not be a major concern if your vehicle can be driven to the junkyard. On the other hand, if you will be renting a tow vehicle or truck, consider the distance the car will be towed. To find a junkyard that will buy your car at the best price, you need to research well. You will end up with a fair amount for your junk car when you follow the guide above.

Lessons Learned About Products

The Benefits of Backup Camera Systems for Cars, Trucks, or RVs

Rearview cameras, which let a driver have an image of what’s behind the car on a dashboard screen when the transmission is shifted to reverse, have become more typical now on new vehicles, and can now be located even on some entry-level models. Moreover, they are about to become obligatory. This is owing to the fact the National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA) delivered a long-delayed ruling instructing that all new vehicles below 10,000 pounds to install a back-up camera starting from May 2018.

Backup cameras and video recorders are installed as an aftermarket tool to have an additional layer of safety to prevent accidents from happening. Backup or rearview cameras are tiny, wide-angle cameras placed at the rear of a vehicle, and connected either to the infotainment screen on the instrument panel, or a small monitor in the rearview mirror itself. Here are some of the top benefits of purchasing a backup camera system for your automobile.

Decrease Blind Zone

The rearview mirror on your car only permits you to see you so much, and even turning your head to check behind you while you back your car up doesn’t always let you see everything that you should see. A backup camera system does away with the blind spots behind automobiles to equip drivers with the necessary tool to avoid backing into people, animals, personal property, and other cars. Backup cameras should be used alongside side-view mirrors, rear-view mirrors, as well as checking over your shoulder.

Increase Safety of People, Property, and Pets

Drivers of heavier vehicles may find it challenging to see behind them when backing up, and rear-facing cameras help make it easier for them to get out of a tight spot. This is an essential tool in the prevention of expensive mishaps. A backup camera is regarded a major safety tool, too. A significant number of serious accidents happen annually when drivers back over a child in a driveway or parking space. In addition to this, pets can get injured in these so-called back-over accidents.

Cheaper in the Long Run

Examining the distance between your car and the things behind you is a persistent hardship, no matter if you’ve been driving for years. The incidence of minor mishaps caused by driver error in these situations is adequate to keep panel beaters busy across the world, and car insurance premiums higher than they should otherwise be. Through investing in a backup camera, you should greatly lower the probability of getting involved in one of these accidents. This signifies that your insurance premiums will be affordable and you may even receive a discount for adding this essential safety device.

Understanding Trailers

Different Easy Ways to Prevent Trailer Sway

There are various kinds of trailers, which include general hauling utility, vehicle hauling car, camping and enclosed cargo trailers. There are times when they create this unwanted back and forth motion called sway, which can cause an accident if it gets severe. You can prevent this from happening when you know how to properly set up your trailer and tow vehicle. It depends also on various factors, including tire pressure, the hitch, the coupling, weight and tongue weight so you have to have a friction sway device and an air pressure gauge.

You ought to keep in mind that 10 to 12 percent of trailer weight must be on the tongue that is found at the front of the vehicle. The sway can happen once there is too much weight at the back of the vehicle so it is important to weight your trailer at a truck shop before loading it. The shop attendant can help out to split-weight your trailer in order to know what weight your tongue is. You can rearrange the load to get correct tongue weight by removing some items if overloaded and weighing it gaining.

Make certain to read the manufacturer’s manual to learn the maximum load capacity. It will also indicate the appropriate class hitch for the vehicle so that your tow vehicle won’t get overloaded. The total weight of the cargo, trailer tongue and passengers need not go over the vehicle’s weight capacity.

It is also important to have correct air pressure in your trailer and tow vehicle tires. The owner’s manual has an indicated correct tire pressure both for the vehicle and the trailer. You can check the tire pressure using the air pressure gauge but the tire should already be cold during checking. When you have just been driving the vehicle, you must allow the tires to cool down prior to checking the pressure.

Never drive the trailer during extreme windy conditions so as r to avoid being blown over. If there is a prediction of severe weather condition, delay your trip until it is calm. Your tow vehicle ought to just be driven during cool weather so it won’t get blown away.

You can ask your dealer to have a friction sway device installed in your vehicle while having a test drive taken to ensure that everything is installed correctly. If sway is still present, you must rotate clockwise the adjustment handle until it is gone and the trailer is stabilized. The sway control device can be installed already on each side of the hitch when you have a large trailer.

When towing, your driving speed must be altered since the extra heavy weight does not permit fast driving. Once you notice that sway starts, steer clear of highways, changing lanes frequently or passing tractor trailers. These situations will cause the trailer to sway and this can initiate a road accident.

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What Research About Cars Can Teach You

The Advantages of Automotive Mechanics There is a significant value that our auto acts in our daily lives. With the presence of our car, there is an easy and quick access of the place where we want to travel. With this, it is necessary for you to maintain the good condition of your car. Getting a maintenance service is an essential factor to be taken into account so as to keep your car in proper function. Due to the ignorance of maintenance service, a lot of car owners these days are facing big expenses. You don’t have to deal with these expenses such as congestion charge, repairs and other road tax expenses for as long as you maintain the condition of your car. With this, for you to offer a maintenance service of your vehicle, it is necessary for you to acquire an automotive mechanic then. Apparently, there are several automotive mechanics available in your area. You will be ensured that the proper functioning of your vehicle is secured when the professional offers the service for your property. Primarily, you have to search for the list of the names of the right automotive mechanics so as for you to achieve your goal of providing the maintenance service for your car. Once you become their loyal client, you will be ensured of the good quality of maintenance service that will be offered to your car. No matter what model your car is, there is an assurance that the service provider has the updated tools and equipment that will be utilized for the process of doing the service. This kind of service will help you to save your money because you don’t have to deal with poor quality. It is essential on your part to consider some important factors so as to be able to determine that there is a good quality of service to be offered by the automotive mechanic company. The primary factor that you have to consider is that the service provider has professional mechanics who will be working on their behalf. For instance that the mechanics are credible in giving the service, you will be guaranteed of the accurate car servicing from them. Aside from that, there is a peace of mind that you will attain especially when there are certain complexities that can be observed with your car because they can definitely manage them well. This is necessary especially if your car is a new model wherein there is a need for innovative tools and automotive procedure to be applied.Where To Start with Cars and More

Why No One Talks About Vehicles Anymore

The Ultimate Guide to Vehicles

An Overview of Finding the Most Affordable Feature Packed SUV Today it is easier than ever before to find a high quality car or SUV because of the ease of shopping for a new vehicle online. When you shop online for a new car or SUV, you are likely to experience a number of important benefits. Shopping for a car, truck or SUV online is much more convenient than shopping any other way, saving us a great deal of time and money. When shopping online, we can start by looking up information about all of the leading vehicle brands by reading reviews and visiting the websites of the manufacturers. Then we can search for the exact models that we want, discovering exactly where they are being sold in our state. Incredibly, shopping online for the leading cars and SUVs on the market will allow you even more convenience than that. By taking advantage of online shopping options like filing an online financing application or browsing photos of the dealer’s inventory, you will be able to find the perfect SUV for your family with no trouble at all. In most cases, buyers look to the traditional brands for a feature rich SUV, but China has recently made a serious entry in the SUV market with several brands and models of feature packed SUVs at affordable prices. Chinese auto manufacturers, like Great Wall Motors (GWM) are now offering excellent SUV models that are both affordable and feature packed. By shopping online, you can now find information on vehicles from Chinese motor companies, like GWM or Great Wall Motors, including which dealerships in your area carry their vehicles.
The Best Advice About Automobiles I’ve Ever Written
The next step when shopping online is to visit the website of the auto dealership that carries the SUV you are interested in, you can then visit their official website and look at pictures of all of the different cars that they have in their inventory. After browsing the inventory and finding the exact make and model you are most interested in, you can actually schedule a test drive right on your computer, phone or other mobile device.
What I Can Teach You About Cars
Anyone who is looking for a great deal on a new SUV, car or truck should begin by searching the Internet for the most feature rich models available at dealerships in their local area. If you want to find the best prices for China’s number one ranked SUV, all you have to do is search the Internet for the auto dealership in your area that sells feature packed, affordable SUVs. If you are located in Florida, the best thing that toucan do to get started is search the Internet for affordable SUVs in Maitland, Florida.